Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua without invitation to the Summit of the Americas, – Q COSTA RICA


REPORTS Q – Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua, led respectively by the regimes of Miguel Díaz-Canel, Nicolás Maduro and Daniel Ortega, are the three countries in the hemisphere that did not receive an invitation to the IX Summit of the Americas organized by the United States government, led by Joe Biden and held in Los Angeles, California.

Miguel Díaz-Canel, Nicolás Maduro and Daniel Ortega, presidents of Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua.

The big question about these three nations is how many times have they participated in this political forum?

This year the United States, as host for the second time – the first was the inaugural meeting in Miami in 1994 – decided not to invite Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela to the summit in Los Angeles, stressing that their governments did not meet the standards of democracy, one of the fundamental pillars of the most important political event in the region.

This year, the ninth edition of the Summit of the Americas. Past events took place in Miami, USA in 1994; Santiago de Chile, in 1998; Quebec, Canada, in 2001; Mar del Plata, Argentina, in 2005; Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, in 2009; Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, in 2012; Panama, in 2015; and Lima, Peru, in 2018. In addition, two extraordinary summits took place, in Bolivia (1996) and Mexico (2004).

The event is organized by the Organization of American States (OAS).

Nicaraguaparticipated in the first summit organized by the United States in Miami, in 1994, under the government of Violeta Barrios de Chamorro; followed in 1998, for the Second Summit held in Santiago de Chile, in 1998, and the Third in Canada, in 2001, under the government of former President Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo.

In 2004, President Enrique Bolaños Geyer participated in the summit held in Mexico and the IV summit held in Argentina in 2005.

Two years after returning to power in 2007, Daniel Ortega participated in the V Summit of the Americas held in Trinidad and Tobago in 2009.

In 2012, for the VI Summit held in Colombia, Ortega did not attend, rejecting the invitation and decided to stay in Managua to attend an act of solidarity with Havana, Cuba, which was excluded from this Summit.

Ortega did attend, along with his wife, Rosario Murillo, the Panama Summit in 2015 in Panama.

While the Ortega regime is not welcome in Los Angeles, civil society participates in the representation of Nicaragua, such as lawyers, peasant leaders and opposition activists.

Venezuelaunder the government of the late President Hugo Chávez, participated in the Summits held in Canada in 2001, in Argentina in 2005 and in Trinidad and Tobago in 2009. Subsequently, Chávez’s successor, Nicolás Maduro, participated in the VI Summit as Minister in 2012 and at the VII Summit held in Panama in 2015

It was not until the VIII Summit of the Americas, held in Peru in 2018, that the Peruvian Foreign Ministry withdrew the invitation to Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro. Instead, an opposition delegation was invited.

Cuba was expelled from the Organization of American States (OAS) shortly after the 1959 revolution and the adoption of socialism as the system of government. This country, under the regime of the late Fidel Castro, was represented at the 2002 Extraordinary Summit held in Monterrey, Mexico.

Governed by Raúl Castro, it participated in the VII Summit organized by Panama in 2015, and in 2018 it sent its Minister of Foreign Affairs, Bruno Rodríguez, to the VIII Summit held in Peru. The current Cuban president, Miguel Díaz-Canel, is the only one who did not participate in the political event.

Venezuela and Nicaragua were excluded from the Summit for the first time. Both countries were sanctioned by the United States for “their undemocratic practices and violations of the fundamental rights of their citizens”.

The position of the three countries

Cuban President Díaz-Canel had already confirmed that he would not participate, in a message in which he also highlighted the efforts of some presidents in the region who “raised their voices against exclusions”, such as the Mexican Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO), so that all the countries of the Americas are invited.

“We know that the United States government conceived from the outset that the Summit of the Americas would not be inclusive. He intended to exclude several countries, including Cuba, despite strong regional demand to end the exclusions,” Diaz-Canel said.

Maduro’s message confirming that he would not participate was through a similar channel. “In Venezuela, we have a clear path: unity, inclusion, diversity, democracy and the right to shape our own destiny. We reject claims to exclude and discriminate against people at the Summit of the Americas,” he wrote on Twitter.

According to information from the AFP news agency, Maduro arrived in Turkey on Tuesday for an official visit.

Ortega was another of the leaders who said he would not participate as soon as there was talk of Nicaragua’s possible exclusion.

“We’re not interested in being at that peak, that peak doesn’t elevate anyone…this dirty, muddy peak,” he said May 18 on national television and radio.

What is the Summit?

According to the OAS Summits of the Americas Secretariat, these meetings bring together heads of state and government of member states of the hemisphere to discuss shared political issues, affirm common values, and engage in concerted action. at national and regional levels, in order to meet the present and future challenges facing the countries of the Americas.

During the Summits, meetings of representatives of civil society from the countries of the hemisphere are organized and regional and multilateral organizations are invited.


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