RMRP 2022 Central America and Mexico – Mexico



The three countries of the sub-region (Panama, Costa Rica, Mexico) have long been destination as well as transit countries for refugees and migrants, with most Venezuelan arrivals by air and via points of official entry, until recently. From mid-2021, a significant increase in the land movements of refugees and migrants from Venezuela was observed across Central America and Mexico. As of October 2021, nearly 2,000 refugees and migrants from Venezuela had crossed the dangerous jungle road through Colombia’s Darien Gap to Panama, and there have been more than 10,000 encounters of Venezuelans attempting to enter the states. -United by the land border with Mexico in September 2021 alone. As of October 2021, there were an estimated 234,500 refugees and migrants from Venezuela in the subregion, which is expected to reach 265,000 by December 2022.

Border closures and the socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have contributed to a notable increase in irregular movements of refugees and migrants from Venezuela into the sub-region, exposing them to protection risks such as as assault, theft, violence (including gender-based violence), smuggling and human trafficking. The COVID-19 pandemic has also caused suspensions and delays in asylum and migration regularization processes, and limited opportunities for socio-economic integration.


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